A History of the Accordion in Americana Music

 


CarterSisters_Cover
Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters

Invented in 1829, the accordion came to North America early on, and as westward expansion took place, was heard in the mountains and bayous….in cities, towns and in the country….in the deserts of the West and Mexico…. on the Great Lakes and the Great Plains…in all states and Canadian provinces….North to Alaska and West to Hawaii.  For more than 100 years, the accordion was a musical instrument “of the people”, of inclusion and belonging, and brought folks together as they settled an entire continent..

Part I

Some of the first to become proficient on the accordion were French speaking Creoles in or near New Orleans, Louisiana,  shortly after the instrument was invented.

Early Accordionist
This photograph, c. 1850, taken 21 years after the invention of the accordion, indicates that the instrument was already being mastered by Creole musicians in Louisiana.

Creoles were often classically trained musicians who provided entertainment at white “house concerts”, dances and elegant parties in Louisiana.(Ken Burns, “History of Jazz”)

historical African American Accordionist
This Creole musician is unknown to us, but from his fine clothing, he may have been well known in 1870

 The accordion was radically different. The bellows provided the “lung power” and women loved this light weight, expressive musical instrument.

Young Woman with Flutina
Young woman with early   “flutina’ accordion. C. 1860
Young woman with her accordion c. 1870
Teen age girl poses for a portrait with her accordion c. 1870

The piano accordion evolved from the bisonoric diatonic “button box”, into a unisonoric instrument. “Uni” means “one” and “sonoric” means “sound”, and if   “Bi” means “two”, therefore “bisonoric” means “two sounds.”  One key of the piano accordion plays one note (unisonoric), whether the bellows is pulling air in or pushing it out. However, when the button accordion bellows opens to pull air in, the note sounded is different than when the same button is pressed while the bellows is pushing air out,(bisonoric) making it closer kin to the harmonica.  Along with the piano keyboard, the innovative Stradella bass section was added, which used preset chords. Because of these features, it was easier to master the piano accordion, the instrument became very popular and sales quickly overtook the “button box”.

Newspaper ad accordion
Newspaper ad

The accordion was portable and loud enough to be heard from front porches, at weddings, social gatherings, dances and as entertainment in theaters and taverns.

Historical accordion boys
Brothers NYC c. early 20th Century

It was played by immigrants….

Guido Diero 1910
Guido Diero, a virtuoso in Italy,  immigrated to America and worked in a mine in Oregon.  Photo c.1910
PietroDeiro1920
Guido’s younger brother, Pietro Diero, also was a virtuoso. Both were very influential as the piano accordion became popular in America, as performers and behind the scenes. Photo c. 1920

….And played by sons and daughters of  immigrants

Violaturpeinen
Viola Turpeinen c. 1920

Viola Turpeinen was probably the first woman accordionist to record, and certainly the first female accordion star in America. A second-generation Finnish-American, starting in the 1920’s she played the Finnish dance circuit in the upper mid-west region of Michigan / Wisconsin / Minnesota. (Accordion Noir) c. 1920

It was popular in live stage productions in Vaudeville

Father with Daughters Vaudeville 1920's
A father and daughters act c.1920’s

and heard in early recordings of Gospel, Blues and the BoogieWoogie………

Lead Belly

Lead Belly c. 1930
Huddie Ledbetter , known as  Lead Belly,  with his diatonic “Windjammer” c.1930’s

Amede Ardoin

Amede Ardoin, a Creole diatonic accordionist beloved in Louisiana, was highly influential in the development of Cajun music in Louisiana.  Ardoin died from a beating after a performance at a white dance in Eunice, LA. This horrific crime was influential as African Americans began to withdraw from the diatonic accordion. However, it has remained the dominion of Cajun and Latino musicians.

amede-ardoin-1075
Amede Ardoin c. 1930’s

 

THE PIANO ACCORDION

The 1940’s

During World War II,  the piano accordion was included in many “big bands” that accompanied dances. After the war, the working class and returning soldiers became nostalgic for their ancestral homelands and the sound of the accordion they heard while in Europe. The Catholic Church deemed the piano accordion respectable in 1947 and allowed its use in mass. As manufacturers appeared in North America, it became more affordable and a surge in demand fed instrument sales and lessons. Americans were back at work and musical instruments in the home were signs of success.

gang of accordion players

Performing with the piano accordion was encouraged and thought to be a key to becoming well rounded and popular.

Retro accordion poster II

Some Roots musicians already had included the accordion in their bands. Sis Cunningham played the accordion with the alternative folk group, the Almanac Singers. She was a member with Pete SeegerMillard LampellLee HaysBess Lomax Hawes, and Woody Guthrie.

TheAlmanacSingers-5902520f3df78c5456c436a1
The Almanac Singers c. 1943

Anita Carter was the accordionist for Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters.

Mother Maybelle, the Carter Sisters with Chet Atkins
Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters, with Chet Atkins. Photo c. 1945

 Wilene “Sally Ann” Forrester, an accordionist, was the first woman hired as a professional Bluegrass musician….

Bill Monroe and his Bluegrass Boys II
Wilene “Sally Ann” Forrester was a member of “Bill Munro and his Bluegrass Boys” for six years. Photo c. 1947

Pee Wee King elevated “Hillbilly Music” and transformed it into “Country & Western” music. Each member of his Western Swing Band was required to read music, join the musicians union and each was included as among the best musicians in the business (Pee Wee  King, “Hell Bent for Music“). They were the first to wear the spangly Western outfits that came to be associated with Country & Western.

Pee Wee King V
The most influential showman in Americana music, Pee Wee King, invented and brought Country & Western music and Nashville, Tennessee to  world renown. He used the accordion, electric guitar and added drums. Along with Redd Stewart, he wrote what became Nashville’s state song, “The Tennessee Waltz” c.1948
Pee Wee King and Red Stewart
Co-writers, Pee Wee King (R), with accordion, and Redd Stewart (L), singer, flank producer, during recording session of “The Tennessee Waltz” c. 1946

The 1950’s

Dick Thomas san Sue City Sue accompanied by accordion c. 1951
Dick Thomas, with his hit song, “Sue City Sue”, accompanied by accordionist c. 1951

By the 1950’s, The big band dance scene died off , but small combos in swanky clubs often included the piano accordion, and it became synonymous with “class”.

Art_VanDamme3
Art Van Damme brought the accordion forward into the world of Jazz. He toured internationally for forty years, performed brilliantly with the instrument and elevated it to an unprecedented level of sophistication. Photo c. 1950
Dick Contino V
Dick Contino c. 1950

Dick Contino was just a teenager when he earned $4000 a week as he toured as the “World’s Greatest Accordionist”. He was a genuine star who had a brief film career.  However, he found himself in the middle of a military draft fracas when he was required to report, but could not be found.  Contino served in the military but was persecuted in the headlines as a “draft dodger”, even though he was not. When honorably discharged from the Army, he performed for fifty years and was the most frequently included guest on the “Ed Sullivan Show”. 

oliveros_young

In 1952, Pauline Oliveros arrived in San Francisico as a college student. Through her life long work with sound and music, Oliveros became noted as one of the most influential composers and music philosophers of the Twentieth Century and is credited as an early pioneer of electronic music.

Bill Haley and the Comets II
Bill Haley and the Comets c. 1955

In 1952, Bill Haley reinvented his Country & Western band, The Saddlemen, as The Comets and recorded the first rock’n’roll hit, “Rock This Joint” which featured Johnny Grande on the piano accordion.

The 1960’s

Clifton Chenier
From New Orleans in the early 1960’s arose “Zydeco” music and, considered by many to be the Father of Zydeco, was Clifton Chenier and His Red Hot Louisiana Band, with his landmark 1965 song “Zydeco Sont Pas Sale”

 

The Year of the Tiger 

 

The “Blue Accordion” is a vintage Tiger from 1965, recently acquired by accordionist Mark Yacavone.

 

Paul McCartney with Accordion
Paul McCartney‘s first instrument was the accordion. He frequently took it with him and used it as he wrote songs for the Beatles. c 1965

The 1970’s

179.-Garth-Hudson-The-Band-811C_25-copy
Garth Hudson was a proficient accordionist long before he was hired by Bob Dylan, as a member of The Hawks, renamed The Band. (Photo by Barry Wenzel c. 1968)
Large_Nitty GrittyDirt Band_5
Americana band, The Nitty Gritty Dirt Band had an enormously successful accordion-based hit song in 1971 written by Jerry Jeff Walker, the now classic “Mr. Bojangles”. (photo c.2000)
Danny with accordion III
As a child prodigy on the accordion, Danny Federici won “Ted Mack’s Original Amateur Hour”. He graduated from high school,  co-founded a band in 1969 and enlisted a young Bruce Springsteen as his lead singer. Danny performed for nearly 40 years with The E Street Band. Photo c. 1973
Jon Hammond
Jon Hammond deliberately pushed the envelope for the accordion in the 1970s. Photo c. 1974
 The 1980’s
Buckwheat zydeco II
 Stanley Dural was a break through artist for the piano accordion and was well known in New Orleans as a Blues organist even before associating himself with the piano accordion or Zydeco music. Stanley Dural continued the Blues tradition as Buckwheat Zydeco.
Tom Waits II
Singer/Songwriter Tom Waits has been a prominent advocate of the accordion in his performances and recordings since the early 1970’s. Photo c. 1990
C.J._Chenier
C.J. Chenier , the son of Clifton, continues his father’s legacy of Zydeco and the Blues.
 Fast Forward
cory-pesaturo-iii
In the 21st Century, American accordionist, Cory Pesaturo, became known as the most internationally awarded accordionist of all time. Photo c. 2010.

 

2012

 

Ben Lovett with Mumford and Sons
2012 Grammy Award for Best Americana album, “Babel”, featuring the piano accordion, made Mumford and Sons a household name in North America
Johnny Kongos III
In 2012, out of Phoenix’ Valley rose Arizona’s own homegrown band, KONGOS, 3 brothers raised and educated in Scottsdale, who composed and recorded the most successful, piano accordion-based hit song, “Come With Me Now”.  It shattered all records, blew the roof off of perceptions about the instrument, and earned Johnny Kongos and his brothers much success and a world wide following.
Bill Haley and the Comets
Also, 2012 was the year that Bill Haley’s group,  the Comets, along with Johnny Grande, were recognized by their induction into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame.
Danny and Bruce
Bruce Springsteen’s E Street Band, co-founded by the late Danny Federici in New Jersey in 1969, were inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, in 2014.
JoeyMiskulin2
Nashville accordionist, Joey Miskulin was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 2018

Not the end…….

 

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